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Evaluation of adaptability and ecological performance of Brassica juncea canola in diverse growing environments

Yantai Gan,
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK

COLLABORATORS: Robert Blackshaw, Eric Johnson, Cecil Vera, Bill May, Guy Lafond

The two B. napus cultivars in this five-site trial were quicker to mature and yielded more than the B. juncea cultivars. Therefore, B. napus may be better than B. juncea for short growing season areas.

Yantai Gan with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) led the three-year study to determine the yield capacity of Brassica juncea canola in comparison with B. napus canola in various sites. The study also examined the suitability and feasibility of straight-combining B. juncea canola and B. napus canola by quantifying seed and pod losses during plant maturity.

Field trials were conducted over 11 site-years in Western Canada at Melfort, SK, Indian Head, SK, Scott, SK, Swift Current, SK and Lethbridge, AB (Table 1). Seven Brassica varieties were compared at each location, including: B. juncea hybrid (201045J10), three B. juncea varieties (8571, 8570 and a genetic line), a Roundup Ready B. napus canola (46P50), a Liberty Link B. napus canola (5440), and B. juncea condiment mustard (Cutlass). All plots were straight combined and seed yields measured.

Oriental mustard required the shortest growing period to reach maturity. The two B. napus cultivars took longer to reach maturity than oriental mustard, but they were quicker to mature than the B. juncea cultivars.

B. juncea had the lowest amount of shattered seed among the oilseed species, with no significant differences in seed shattering among all four B. junceacultivars. However, this was not enough to overcome the higher yield potential of B. napus canola when straight combining. Overall, hybrid B. napus canola was still the best yielding crop at most sites and in most years, even in the drier areas of the average- and low-yielding sites.

These are the sites with a p-value (presented in the very right column) smaller than 0.05, which means the differences in seed yield among the seven varieties were significant statistically. Yield values followed by different letters within a row mean significant difference between the varieties in seed yield.

Table 1. Seed yield (kg/ha) of different types of canola evaluated at different site-years
Site-years Hybrid juncea Juncea 1 Juncea 2 Juncea 3 LL napus RR napus Oriental mustard P value
Indian Head 2011 1479c 1530bc 1479c / 2039a 1770abc 1812ab 0.002
Indian Head 2012 746c 1054abc / 881bc 1328a 822bc 1254ab 0.025
Lethbridge 2011 3159ab 3344a / / 3397a 2846b 3429a 0.007
Melfort 2010 1329bc 1345bc 1172c / 1802ab 1953a 1583abc 0.029
Melfort 2011 1615b 1568b 1515b / 2855a 2562a 2721a < 0.0001
Melfort 2012 1647ab 1306b / 1549ab 2059a 2043a 1973a 0.028
Scott 2010 1820c 2097bc 1752c / 2888a 2532ab 1820c 0.0001
Scott 2011 2232b 2424ab 1177c / 2618a 2372ab 2379ab < 0.0001
Swift Current 2010 952c 1199b 1031bc / 1824a 1842a 1190b < 0.0001
Swift Current 2011 1300e 1743c 1307e / 2195a 1937b 1537d < 0.0001
Swift Current 2012 1201ab 1105bc / 1313a 1320a 1022c 1303a 0.0001

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